Before we talked about Rabies Vaccine and HRIG and explain on both advantage and disadvantage of Rabies Vaccine and HRIG let’s talk about Rabies first.
Rabies is a serious disease. It is caused by a virus. Rabies is mainly a disease of animals. Humans get rabies when they are bitten by infected animals. At first there might not be any symptoms. But weeks, or even months after a bite, rabies can cause pain, fatigue, headaches, fever, and irritability.
These are followed by seizures, hallucinations, and paralysis. Human rabies is almost always fatal. Wild animals—especially bats—are the most common source of human rabies infection in the United States.
Virtually all infections with rabies resulted in death until two French scientists, Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux, developed the first rabies vaccination in 1885. This vaccine was first used on a human on July 6, 1885, on nine-year-old Joseph Meister (1876–1940), who had been mauled by a rabid dog.
Their vaccine consisted of a sample of the virus harvested from infected (and necessarily dead) rabbits that was weakened by allowing it to dry for 5 to 10 days. Similar nerve tissue-derived vaccines are still used now in some countries, and while they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines, they are not as effective. Neural tissue vaccines also carry a certain risk of neurological complications.
Skunks, raccoons, dogs, cats, coyotes, foxes and other mammals can also transmit the disease. Human rabies is rare in the United States. There have been only 55 cases diagnosed since 1990. However, between 16,000 and 39,000 people are vaccinated each year as a precaution after animal bites. Also, rabies is far more common in other parts of the world, with about 40,000–70,000 rabies-related deaths worldwide each year. Bites from unvaccinated dogs cause most of these cases.
If you got bitten by these animal, here are some things you can do. Thoroughly clean the wound site with soap and water for 5 minutes. If available, an antiseptic that kills viruses such as povidone-iodine, iodine tincture, aqueous iodine solution or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after washing.
If exposed, mucous membranes such as eyes, nose or mouth should be flushed well with water. It is important to follow these processes with appropriate treatment with rabies vaccine and HRIG. If it is possible, call the animal control authorities.
Rabies vaccine and HRIG also can be preventive ways for those who are not getting any exposure. For example, People at high risk of exposure to rabies, such as veterinarians, animal handlers, rabies laboratory workers, spelunkers, and rabies biologics production workers should be offered rabies vaccine. The vaccine should also be considered for, People whose activities bring them into frequent contact with rabies virus or with possibly rabid animals, and International travelers who are likely to come in contact with animals in parts of the world where rabies is common.
In the last sentence before, we mention about rabies vaccine and HRIG, in this article we will explain to you the information of those two that you might be need to know. he first rabies vaccine was introduced in 1885, and was followed by an improved version in 1908. Millions of people globally have been vaccinated and it is estimated that this saves more than 250,000 people a year. It is on the World Health Organization’s List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.
The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 44 and 78 USD for a course of treatment as of 2014. In the United States a course of rabies vaccine is more than 750 USD. What is the differences between rabies vaccine and HRIG? A course of rabies vaccines (given into the shoulder muscle) works to develop long term immunity, but this may take seven days to begin providing protection.
For this reason, HRIG is usually given into the wound or site of injury to provide immediate short term protection while the rabies vaccines start to work. Long term protection is essential as rabies infection can take a long time to develop. Not everyone potentially exposed to rabies or ABLV will be advised to have HRIG. For example, HRIG is generally not required for people who have been previously vaccinated against rabies. When recommended, it is important to have the HRIG as well as the vaccine to ensure complete protection against rabies or ABLV.
Rabies Vaccine is needed when no one knows the animal and it cannot be observed, or in countries where rabid animals are prevalent, treatment should begin immediately, If, within the 10 days of observation, the animal shows any signs of rabies (such as bizarre or unusual behavior), then treatment should begin immediately. Wild animals, such as raccoons, skunks, foxes, coyotes and bats may carry rabies. Unvaccinated companion animals, such as cats and dogs, may carry rabies.
In the next paragraphs we will let you know about the dosage of rabies vaccine and HRIG. For the rabies vaccine we have 3 times of the shot which are as soon as you got bitten, 7 days after dose 1 and 21 days or 28 days after dose 1.
Meanwhile, Human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) is a shot that is given as soon as possible after a likely exposure to rabies. HRIG contains rabies antibodies that immediately inactivate and control the rabies virus until the vaccine begins to work. HRIG is given only one time, at the beginning of treatment for rabies exposure.
For your consideration HRIG is given only to people who have not received the rabies vaccine before their most recent exposure. People who previously received the vaccine already have some rabies antibodies, and another HRIG injection can make the post exposure vaccination series less effective.
Now let’s talk about the side effect. Actually all of the medicines and vaccines have side effect, including Rabies vaccine and HRIG. For this vaccine, about 20% of people complain of redness at the injection site or a sore arm. Other side effects include fever (8%), headache (5%), stomach upset (5%), muscle aches and pains (5%) and a rash (5%). A very small minority of people (1 in 10,000) can suffer a severe allergic reaction, with symptoms that might include difficulty breathing and swelling of the throat. This is exactly the same reaction that occurs in some people who are allergic to bee stings or peanuts. Your doctor will ask you to stay in the clinic for about 20 minutes after the rabies vaccination to ensure you are not one of those very few people who are allergic to the rabies vaccine. If this reaction occurs, it is usually easily treated at the clinic. Throughout the world, five cases of inflammation of the brain have been reported among the millions of people who have been given rabies vaccine. These cases have not been linked with certainty to the vaccine.
For the HRIG, pain and discomfort can occur at the injection site. Fever and chills sometimes occur. As with all medicines, acute severe allergic reactions occur very rarely. Because HRIG is prepared from human blood, the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections cannot be absolutely excluded.
This risk also applies to as yet unknown diseases. The risk of spreading known diseases is reduced during the production of HRIG by screening blood donors, by screening all donated blood for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C, and by further processing of the blood to extract the immunoglobulins. There have been no reports in Australia of transmission of any blood borne disease in people who have received HRIG.
You need to tell your doctor as soon as possible if the side effect of rabies vaccine and HRIG occurred. Also, before you get rabies vaccine and HRIG, you have to tell your doctor if you ever had a serious (life-threatening) allergic reaction to a previous dose of rabies vaccine, or to any component of the vaccine; tell your doctor if you have any severe allergies, have a weakened immune system because of HIV/AIDS or another disease that affects the immune system, treatment with drugs that affect the immune system, such as steroids, cancer, or cancer treatment with radiation or drugs.
If you have a minor illness, such as a cold, you can be vaccinated. If you are moderately or severely ill, you should probably wait until you recover before getting a routine (non-exposure) dose of rabies vaccine.
If you are pregnant or still in breast feeding phase, there is no evidence that the vaccine can harm unborn babies. Follow up of 200 pregnant women in Thailand found that the vaccine was safe. It is not known if the vaccine is secreted in human milk, but any vaccine present in breast milk should not have harmful effects. For the safeties of the mother and baby you have to always consult first with your doctor first.
If you still want to learn more about Rabies Vaccine and HRIG during your visit in Bali, you can go and contact Hydro Medical Bali. They will provide you the information that you needed for Rabies Vaccine and HRIG. Also, they will provide you the vaccine when you needed it with the handling of their professional health care.